Background: Experimental data suggest that apolipoprotein (apo) C-II and C-III regulate triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism, but there are limited studies in humans. Fatty acids eventually undergo beta-oxidation, and their energy is used by the heart and skeletal muscles. HDL is formed by the transfer of cholesterol and phospholipids onto apolipoproteinA-1 (ApoA-1) to generate pre -HDL. Rather, their dietary fats are transported from the small intestine as very low-density lipoproteins. Many of the apoproteins exist as different genetically determined isoforms, which create individual and population differences in lipoprotein metabolism. In this short introductory chapter, we provided a brief overview of lipid metabolism highlighting the role of lipids as CVD risk factors, the various types of lipid structure and function as well as the exogenous (intestinal), and the endogenous lipid transport pathways through which fats are transported from the intestines and the liver, respectively, to the peripheral tissues. Unsaturated fatty acids contain one or more double bonds and are divided into three categories: Monounsaturated (one double bond), polyunsaturated (two or more double bonds), and eicosanoids (derived from 20 carbons = eicosa) that include prostaglandins, thromboxanes, and leukotrienes. Brief introduction to this section that descibes Open Access especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch? HERMIER, D. (1997) Lipoprotein metabolism and fattening in poultry. In the blood, free fatty acids are bound to albumin. LIPOPROTEINS. 1. nonpolar lipids (triacylglycerol and cholesteryl esters) 2. amphipathic lipids (phospholipids and cholesterol) 3. proteins to make water-miscible lipoproteins. Increased expression of genes such as Apolipoprotein E (ApoE), Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells 2 (TREM2) and Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) in microglia during development, damage, and disease, suggest that increased lipid metabolism is needed to … To date, Apo-CIII [33], Apo-AV [34] and angiopoietin-like protein (ANGPTL) 3 and 4 [27,35] have been linked to the catalytic activity of %PDF-1.4 %���� Our readership spans scientists, professors, researchers, librarians, and students, as well as business professionals. 0000000016 00000 n As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. h��[9�㸲ͅ��;�b�M����z��w���˪ \9�����Ib�L$N%,u)�NN���J+���J+���J+���m�-Bw̽3����4�c����o&|����l��s�����7X���q˽-��-��m=��O��B`�O���ڿn��T�N���A���\o�s׹��=1�n����ߛG�n�$���o�z-S���������2q`7c�*0���T�����ڛ�|���/�—!S*EU���%�;�o���cZ���1��z�jq��W|�G�g@z��1�4����� To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. However, because adipocytes lack glycerol kinase, glycerol-3-phosphate for resynthesis of triacylglycerols must come from glycolysis. _1���7 ��������.�wo i���Ϟ=��#�DzDOt����]��.ݮ?E/O��. a) Nonessential fatty acid metabolism b) Essential fatty acid metabolism c) cholesterol metabolism d) Lipoprotein metabolism 8) Tangier disease is a disorder of lipoprotein metabolism. endstream endobj 3 0 obj <>stream These lipoproteins have, in their basic structure, a lipid core to be transported (triacylglycerols (TAG), phospholipids, and cholesterol esters). In this introductory chapter to our book that addresses topical issues of dyslipidemia, we provide an introduction we believe will be useful to a wide range of audiences including students, researchers, and clinical providers with a simplified overview of the structure, classification, and metabolism of lipids. Available from: Overview of lipoprotein structure, function, and metabolism, Exogenous (intestinal) lipid transport pathway, State University of New York, Downstate Medical Center, New York, USA. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. xڼR�KSQ�ܳ�ʜ�7'�j�&�݃�m��O�F��h�U�+�)=D�*�8׸D��(.d0k�=>��. These mechanisms come into play in the role of diabetes as a risk factor for CVD including stroke [8]. This chapter will serve as a quick and illustrated reference to the reader of this book, Dyslipidemia, thus facilitating the understanding of the other book chapters. �@F��)�e-��3*L .�!�\u_��b�i$�^_��9��ҝAQ��0ʲjj�>�����@�Ċ�S� ?���g�:8$0l�u0�U��ڝ��O\F�F��5����v�>��*� ��� APOPROTEINS • Surface proteins present on lipoproteins. The lipoproteins consist of a core of hydrophobic lipids (cholesterol ester & TGL) surrounded by a shell of amphipathic lipids Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Trans fatty acids are the results of partial hydrogenation, a process that is used to create solidified products such as margarine. Dyslipidemia is a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor that is frequently encountered in clinical practice, affecting one in three adults (over 30% of adult population) in the United States alone [1, 2]. 0 The liver plays a central role in whole-body cholesterol homeostasis, thus perturbations in hepatic cholesterol metabolism can result in hypercholesterolemia. Lipoproteins are large macromolecular complexes that transport hydrophobic lipids (primarily triglycerides, cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins) through body fluids (plasma, interstitial fluid, and lymph) to and from tissues. Handout 11 Lipoprotein metabolism 2 Ruminants do not synthesis chylomicrons primarily due to low fat intake. Saturated fatty acids are those containing no double bonds such as acetic (CH3▬COOH) and palmitic acid (Figure 1). This process occurs in the vessel walls as well as in the plasma and is mediated by LCAT as well as hepatic lipase (HL) and endothelial lipase (EL). LDL contains only one apoprotein (B-100) and is taken up by the liver through LDL receptors with approximately one-third utilized by peripheral cells for membrane formation and steroidogenesis. We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. A brief summary of normal lipoprotein metabolism will be presented in this section and followed by a description of the impact of diabetes on these processes in the next section. 0000001367 00000 n trailer Cell Metabolism Clinical and Translational Report Hepatic Lipoprotein Export and Remission of Human Type 2 Diabetes after Weight Loss AhmadAl-Mrabeh,1,*SviatlanaV.Zhyzhneuskaya,1 CarlPeters,1 AlisonC.Barnes,2 ShadenMelhem,1 AaronJesuthasan,3 Benjamin Aribisala,4 Kieren G. Hollingsworth,1 Georg Lietz,2 John C. Mathers,2 Naveed Sattar,5 Michael E.J. Glycerol is returned from adipocytes to the liver, for resynthesis of glucose by gluconeogenesis. startxref These findings collectively reinforced the negative connotation associated with lipids in general, despite the vital roles lipids play in various metabolic processes such as the bi-lipid layer cell membrane, the formation of steroid hormones, and bile. Contact our London head office or media team here. © 2019 The Author(s). Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Among many other roles, insulin inhibits the release of free fatty acids (FFA) from the adipose tissues and suppresses hepatic VLDL secretion into the circulation. A hydrophilic layer in which apolipoproteins are embedded thus provides structural stability as well as identity for each type of the lipoprotein. LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM IN THE BODY It is well known that cholesterol is an important lipid component of virtually all cell membranes, as well as is the precursor of various steroid hormones such as the sex hormones (estrogen, testosterone, and progesterone) and corticosteroids (corticosterone, cortisol, cortisone, particles buoyant density and subdivides them into 4 major classes: high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein (VLDL), and chylomicrons. 0000001876 00000 n And again, as with CM, through the action of CETP, VLDL exchange cholesterol for TAG with HDL resulting in the formation of IDL which can be taken up by the liver via the apo E/remnant receptor or further reduced by hepatic lipase into LDL. To understand the diverse causes of lipoprotein abnormalities, a brief review of lipoprotein structure, function, and metabolism is provided. 1384 0 obj <> endobj Overview of lipoprotein structure, function, and metabolism Lipids are insoluble in water and are transported in the plasma (or extracellular fluids) by lipoproteins. LIPOPROTEIN • Macromolecular assembly that contain lipids and proteins. The rest are taken up by either hepatic … Figure 2 illustrates how trans fats can stack neatly, one on top of the other, to create dense solid fats. We investigated the metabolic associations of TRLs with apoC-II and apoC-III concentrations and kinetics in women. Cis and trans bonds are isomers of fatty acids (Figure 2); nearly, all naturally occurring bonds are in cis configuration. Mature α-HDL2 and α-HDL3 continue to acquire free cholesterol delivered from inside the cells via ABCG1, therefore increasing the amount of cholesterol carried to the liver via the CE-rich α-HDL via either direct or indirect pathways (Figure 4). Pathogenesis of lipoprotein disorders I. synthesis of cholesterol and/or triacylglycerols secretion of LP II. C, cholesterol; CE, cholesteryl ester; LCAT, lecithin cholesterol ethyl transferase; PL, phospholipid; ApoA-1, apolipoprotein A-1. 0000002629 00000 n The phenotype corresponds to a) Low level of VLDL b) Low level of LDL c) … Lipid and Lipoprotein Basics Thomas Dayspring MD, FACP, FNLA activation or inactivation of various lipolytic enzymes such as lipoprotein lipase and other enzymes. Similar to the process described above with CM, apo C and apo E are acquired from HDL where apo C activates LPL that catalyzes the hydrolysis of TG in VLDL producing FFA that are taken up by the muscles for energy production or stored in the adipose tissues. By Angelina Zhyvotovska, Denis Yusupov and Samy I. McFarlane, Submitted: December 6th 2018Reviewed: February 11th 2019Published: March 21st 2019, *Address all correspondence to: smcfarlane@downstate.edu. 7 Prentice Hall c2002 Chapter 16 13 Table 16.1 Prentice Hall c2002 Chapter 16 14 C. Storage and Mobilization of Fatty Acids (FA) • TGs are stored in adipocytes, and fatty acids are released to supply energy demands • Functions • Provides structural stability to lipoproteins. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is the rate-limiting enzyme in cholesterol synthesis and is a target of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL)–lowering drugs statins. These deleterious effects of trans fats prompted the FDA to ban the production of partially hydrogenated oils in June 2018. In the indirect hepatic cholesterol uptake pathway, CE-rich α-HDL exchanges CE for TAG from the TAG-rich LAD and VLDL particles, a process that is facilitated by CETP, thereby forming a TAG-rich HDL and CE-rich LDL and VLDL. This process involves the mobilization of cholesterol from the plasma membranes of cells along the arterial walls and the delivery of the cholesterol to the liver in the form of cholesterol esters (CE), thus reducing cholesterol levels in the periphery and thereby reducing inflammation as well as atherosclerosis. About 40 to 60% of all LDL are cleared by the liver in a process mediated by apo B and hepatic LDL receptors. There are five major types of lipoprotein (Figure 3), classified based on their density (hence their size) from ultra-low-density lipoprotein (ULDL = chylomicrons) to very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL), and high-density lipoproteins (HDL). Please consult the latest official manual style if you have any questions regarding the format accuracy. Furthermore, CM in the lymphatic system exchange apo A-I and apo A-II for apo C and E from HDL. 1392 0 obj <>stream In the direct hepatic cholesterol uptake pathway, CE-rich α-HDL binds to scavenger receptor B1 (SR B1) that recognizes Apo A1, and CEs are taken by hepatocytes and excreted in bile. Lipoprotein metabolism. HERMIER , D. , FOLGEZ , P. , WILLIAMS , J. and CHAPMAN , M.J. ( 1989 ) Alterations in plasma lipoproteins and apolipoproteins associated with oestrogen-induced hyperlipidemia in the laying hen . LMPP : Diagnosing dyslipoproteinemia Quantitation of cholesterol and triglycerides in very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL), LDL, HDL, and chylomicrons Identification of LpX Classifying hyperlipoproteinemias (lipoprotein phenotyping) Evaluating patients with abnormal lipid values (cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL, LDL)   Quantifying lipoprotein a (Lp[a]) cholesterol Disclaimer: These citations have been automatically generated based on the information we have and it may not be 100% accurate. Of the many disorders of lipoprotein metabolism, the familial hypercholesterolemias (FH) may be the most prevalent in the general population. Citation. Licensee IntechOpen. These CM contain cholesterol esters (CE) and TAG, formed by re-esterification of FFA, and are carried to the peripheral tissues including muscles and adipose tissues. This free cholesterol is transported outside the macrophages via adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) to apolipoprotein A1, forming nascent pre-β HDL. These lipoproteins have, in their basic structure, a lipid core to be transported (triacylglycerols (TAG), … CEs are then taken by hepatocytes via LDL receptors, catabolized, and also excreted in the bile, as with the direct pathway. ��]=� H�$�� Lipoprotein metabolism. endstream endobj 1388 0 obj <> endobj 1389 0 obj <> endobj 1390 0 obj <> endobj 1 0 obj <>/ColorSpace<>/ProcSet[/PDF/ImageC/ImageI]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 2 0 obj <>stream We also highlighted in some detail the reverse cholesterol transfer pathway via which cholesterol, in the form of cholesterol esters, are transported from the blood vessel walls and other tissues back to the liver for excretion in the bile. With the publication of the landmark observational study, the Framingham Heart Study, the predictive relationship between hypercholesterolemia and coronary heart disease (CHD) was established, where adults with total cholesterol (TC) of >300 mg/dl were 5 times more likely to have CHD, compared with those of TC of <200 mg/dl [3]. 0000000492 00000 n Defects in Components of Lipoprotein Metabolism. For example, the Lipid Research Clinics Coronary Primary Prevention Trial (LRC-CPPT), using cholestyramine, a bile acid sequestrant, demonstrated that 1% reduction in TC led to 2–3% reduction in CHD risk [5]. Table 23-1 summarizes the lipoprotein subclasses, the source of each one, and the constituent lipids and apolipoproteins associated with each particle. By the action of activated LPL, FFA are released and undergo beta-oxidation to be used as energy source or stored as fat in the adipose tissues. xref Our team is growing all the time, so we’re always on the lookout for smart people who want to help us reshape the world of scientific publishing. disturbed metabolism of lipoproteins - changes in remodelation of particles abnormal composition: LP-X (liver cirrhosis), small dense LDL - catabolism of lipoproteins Lipoprotein lipase is synthesized by … Spherical macromolecular complexes which help in the transport of TGL and cholesterol through blood stream between various tissues. Together with oral and intravenous fat tolerance tests, these methods provide the basis for studying lipoprotein metabolism in cats and dogs. b) Lipoprotein lipase c) LCAT d) Apo C-II 9) Familial hypercholesterolemia is a genetic disorder of lipid metabolism. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Hepatic Cholesterol Metabolism. Certain disease states interfere with lipid transport pathways, leading to serious disorders. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. Reverse cholesterol transport pathway. The processes described above are well regulated in healthy states and are quite abnormal in dyslipidemia, leading to excess CVD as well as other disorders such as nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), among others. In the macrophages of the vessel wall, CEs are hydrolyzed via cholesterol ester hydrolase (CEH), thereby releasing free cholesterol. <]>> How? TAGs are cleaved into free fatty acids and glycerol. • In the body the major lipids are: Cholesterol Triglycerides Phospholipids Fatty acids • Because they are water insoluble and in blood are transported in particles called lipoproteins. Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism include primary and secondary conditions that substantially increase or decrease specific circulating lipids (e.g., cholesterol or TGs) or lipoproteins (e.g., low density or high density lipoproteins, see below). '�@˳pT쒧�FB� �)E�9i�)��|z���J]R�?���_���c�S#�S�X7ڹ���V"%���њ4|�q��έv�z�et@�Y,�^D�.6�Y���3�� �6�m_Aw2�l��Q`� E CLASSIFICATION 4. Furthermore, the inability to suppress VLDL-triglyceride kinetics has been implicated in the pathogenesis of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease [9], a serious complication that leads to CVD, cancer, and liver fibrosis and increases mortality [10]. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. endstream endobj 1385 0 obj <>/Outlines 164 0 R/Metadata 277 0 R/PieceInfo<>>>/Pages 271 0 R/PageLayout/SinglePage/StructTreeRoot 279 0 R/Type/Catalog/LastModified(D:20121020112158)/PageLabels 269 0 R>> endobj 1386 0 obj <>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text]/ExtGState<>>>/Type/Page>> endobj 1387 0 obj <>stream We are a community of more than 103,000 authors and editors from 3,291 institutions spanning 160 countries, including Nobel Prize winners and some of the world’s most-cited researchers. 0000002550 00000 n John D. Brunzell, in Clinical Lipidology, 2009. The expression of key intestinal genes and proteins involved in lipid/lipoprotein metabolism was assessed by performing real-time PCR quantification and LC-MS/MS on duodenal biopsy specimens. Methods for the measurement of canine and feline plasma lipoprotein-cholesterol concentrations, apolipoprotein concentrations, and the activities of LPL, HL and LCAT have been developed. With the advent of statins, numerous clinical trials have shown CVD benefits with cholesterol-lowering therapy that are above and beyond just lowering lipid levels [7]. LIPOPROTEIN METABOLISM Dr ANKITA MISHRA JNMCH AMU,ALIGARH 2. Angelina Zhyvotovska, Denis Yusupov and Samy I. McFarlane (March 21st 2019). The free cholesterol is then esterified into CEs via lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and the nascent pre-β-HDL then becomes mature α-HDL which converts into mature α-HDL subtypes, α-HDL2 and α-HDL3. x���1 ðm�-�䉀vk�$�G�h�9��sx��9� ��� Lipoprotein lipase is an enzyme that cleaves VLDLs and TAGs. role in plasma lipoprotein metabolism. Lipoproteins play an essential role in the absorption of dietary cholesterol, long-chain fatty acids, and fat-soluble vitamins; the transport of triglycerides, cholesterol, and fat-soluble vitamins from the liver to peripher… Figure 17.8 summarizes overall aspects of lipoprotein metabolism and transport. Fig 16.6 Summary of lipoprotein metabolism. Similarly, using gemfibrozil, a fibric acid derivative, in the Helsinki Heart Study, a 5-year primary prevention trial, there was 34% risk reduction in myocardial infarction and sudden cardiac death in the treatment group, compared to placebo [6]. Compiled by Prof J M Kuyl Lipids • Lipids are a heterogeneous group of water insoluble compounds, also loosely called fats. ?�~i����X����h���k�j�p"n��4�d���;�W �ya#p`Y,�:-�M֣Ek͛+{��.�ՌN��A�a`49ۨ�w>��vz�*����|�χ���H�KB%@P t����Į!J!JT��r �$^! endstream endobj 1391 0 obj <>/Size 1384/Type/XRef>>stream Low-density lipoproteins (LDL), the products of VLDL and IDL metabolism, are the most cholesterol-rich of all lipoproteins. Triglycerides from the diet are digested in the gastrointestinal tract to form monoglycerides and free fatty acids through various processes, including gastric lipase, bile emulsification and pancreatic lipase. Introductory Chapter: Overview of Lipoprotein Metabolism, Dyslipidemia, Samy I. McFarlane, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.85094. +pf�ig��������_ ��� 0000001649 00000 n It is generally associated with other CVD risk factors including insulin resistance/diabetes, hypertension, and central obesity. Lipoprotein metabolism, 1. h�R�m�P�7B�� 7J:��[CURd�L�x��>CJ�aғ�y N�=�s�߷�����D@ɪPD5jPJ�lp@��Mt����Ә�ȓ��54�28�=ˇݭ�I����JY�,vq� For example, in diabetes mellitus, relative insulin resistance causes underutilization of VLDLs and chylomicrons, eventually leading to hypertriacylglycerolemia and increased small-density LDLs which promotes atherosclerosis [8]. Apo C is required for the activation of the LPL, and apo E is required for the recognition of the CM remnants by the liver’s receptors (Figure 3). Derived lipids such as steroid hormones and lipid-soluble vitamins. These findings were further supported by data from another landmark study, the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT) that clearly demonstrated a graded and strongly positive correlation between TC levels and CHD mortality [4]. HeadquartersIntechOpen Limited5 Princes Gate Court,London, SW7 2QJ,UNITED KINGDOM. 3. endstream endobj 4 0 obj <>stream 0000001158 00000 n CM, formed in the intestinal epithelial cells (enterocytes), are the lipoproteins involved in the transport of exogenous (dietary) lipids from the intestine to the lymphatic system into the circulation through the exogenous lipid metabolism pathway (Figure 3). Built by scientists, for scientists. Similarly, cholesterol esters from the diet undergo a process of de-est… 1 Lipoprotein metabolism and disorders of lipid metabolism. lipoprotein metabolism is the process by which hydrophobic lipids, namely triglycerides and cholesterol, are transported within the interstitial fluid and plasma. The defect lies in a) Transport of cholesterol from extrahepatic tissue to the liver b) Impairment of cholesterol degradative pathway c) Impairment of uptake of cholesterol by tissues Chylomicrons (CM) are the largest in diameter with the lowest density and the highest TAG content. %%EOF Subsequently, multiple trials using various lipid-lowering agents clearly established CVD benefits from lipid lowering. The Journal of Nutrition 127 : 805S - 808S . A number of potential factors are present in plasma that may influence the in vivo function of LpL. Lipids are insoluble in water and are transported in the plasma (or extracellular fluids) by lipoproteins. TAG and cholesterol from CM catabolism (remnants) are endogenously produced in the liver and are secreted in VLDL that contains apo B-100 (Figure 3). The vast majority of dietary lipids are triglycerides (>95%), and the remaining are phospholipids, free fatty acids, cholesterol and fat-soluble vitamins. Lean,6 and Roy Taylor1 ,7 8 * F. Lipoprotein lipase 1. Complex lipids such as phospholipids, glycolipids, and lipoproteins. 0000002077 00000 n This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. CM also, through the action of cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP), acquire CE from HDL in exchange of TAG. General Comments. Lipoprotein Lipase (Type I hyperlipidemia): Increased chylomicrons and VLDL (triglycerides) with decrease in LDL and HDL – cholesterol is normal Deficienct lipoportein lipase; Defective Apo-CII leading to inadequate activation of lipoprotein lipase Many of It’s based on principles of collaboration, unobstructed discovery, and, most importantly, scientific progression. By Perry Wengrofsky, Justin Lee and Amgad N. Makaryus, By Zhiwei Yang, Dongxiao Hao, Yizhuo Che, Lei Zhang and Shengli Zhang. 1384 9 }�\�|�@.W_�� �IH Trans fatty acids are proinflammatory, increase LDL and decrease HDL-cholesterol, and increase risk for obesity, diabetes, and CVD. (�k�fjd�>Zb�KSR ��A�a)�ɣ=ˇB�M���Zg��a+t���i�pd��^���d-����ow��o�ۛ���>�뺞ϧ�]�q���c����RZ;E��a &l���m\�e��);wL�b��1dg3=�'��\lMK�(�2�1Iq,�3G#�b`�a&���gp0�3Z�7�̞��M�6^�l$�M���m���uT����Ze�����(�8�������\��ϯ���H5��_� �|� 1. (b C$�z(IX�=�tvǰ�������q8�| ����B�����`I����c������q�d��y{>|aѼ�9c0,�Τ�WC���Y�U������SϺ�܉盷n���TW;Y�ȟ��kz]��G̿x���qc�m=xNVU5rt$�deyZ�s���U�ͮxs�֚k-(eN��ܸb�`�ݟ/�y{�h? H��w�L/-JU����u�tQ0P��srqV�*��w6PH/�2P036P�517�3ʛ��i33��\. LIPIDS. Disorders of lipoprotein metabolism include primary and secondary conditions that substantially increase or decrease specific circulating lipids (e.g., cholesterol or TGs) or lipoproteins (e.g., low density or high density lipoproteins, see below). 21St 2019 ): 805S - 808S PL, phospholipid ; ApoA-1, A-1. 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